Health, healthy lifestyle
THE CONCEPT OF INDIVIDUAL HEALTH AND THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF VALEOLOGY
In the who Constitution health is defined as. and not just as the absence of disease or infirmity. Although this definition may not be considered enough research, it clearly shows that human health is a complex (multi-level) state. And therefore, it should be considered from the perspective of structural analysis.
On the physiological level the Foundation of health is homeostasis – the body’s ability to ensure the constancy of its internal environment despite
external changes. According to the principle of homeostasis, health is preserved, if supported by the constancy of the internal environment of the body. Conversely, it gets worse (disease occurs), if the violation of homeostasis is persistent (V. M. Dilman, 1987). Hence, the first fundamental principle of valeology – the principle of preservation of health. It is based on a homeostasis.
The pursuit of internal consistency is the most important valeological mechanism of the body. But the human body, as is known, throughout its development is not in a state of equilibrium or uravnoveshennosti with the environment. It constantly adapts to its environment, reacting to incoming stimuli from. Therefore, the livelihoods (and therefore health) of the person along with the homeostasis provides another fundamental ability of the body is adapting. In this regard, it should be noted that the adaptation to the new conditions does not pass to the body without a trace. It is accomplished at the expense of the cost functional resources of the body. And if “payment for the adaptation goes beyond its reserve capacity, there is a risk of occurrence of disease (I. V. Davydov, 1962; N. M. Amosov, 1979; V. P. Kaznacheev, 1980, 1983; and others).
More precisely, the transition from health to disease is associated with the action of intense stimuli. They cause in the body reaction “pathological stress”(I. A. Arsovska, 1982), characterized by brittle homeostasis, gradually increasing catabolic processes (depletion of energy reserves) throughout the development of the adaptation syndrome (Hans Selye, 1979) and the formation of the so-called third condition (I. Brahmana, 1990), i.e. a state close to a chronic illness. Such a mechanism of transition from health to disease is confirmed by the results of mass preventive examinations of the population(V. P. Kaznacheev, R. M. Baevsky, A. P. Berseneva, 1980):
From the above materials, the conclusion follows of necessity to maintain in the body are necessary (optimal) provision of adaptive capacity. Consequently, there is again a preventive approach to health, which valeological work, at best, reduced to primary prevention (prevention of disease).
Not much without diminishing the importance of preventive measures, many authors (I. I. Bregman, 1990; N. M. Amosov, 1979; I. A. Arshavsky, 1993; G. L. Apanasenko, 1992; V. Kabanov, 1995) and others is justified to note that the theoretical Foundation of valeology cannot only be built on the idea of preventive. Moreover, in the human body has another (sgravesande) mechanism. Its basis is also an adaptive response. But they are not directed at the preservation of the functional capacity of the organism, and its morphological transformation, which resulted in the increase of adaptation resources and, therefore, grow reserves health.
Improving adaptive reserves, according to I. A. Araskog (1993), is characterized by trapanotto flow. The first phase is anabolic. In this phase, the body mobilizes additional energy resources. The second phase is characterized by a new, higher level of energy expenditure, during which the activity begins the gradual induction of an excessive accumulation of energy reserves. In the third phase, the growth trend of energy (negentropy) is significantly enhanced, resulting in the body increases the supply of “free energy” (by E. S. Bauer, 1935).
Therefore, in the body along with the means of preserving health, there is a mechanism to ensure its accumulation or buildup. Hence, another fundamental principle of valeology – the principle of increasing the reserves of health (or health promotion).
Within the mental wellbeing of a person also relevant are the principles of health preservation and increase of its reserves. The first of these is the desire to maintain the mental balance of the organism with the environment by enclosing himself from emotional and information overload, and the second is to increase mental resilience (adaptability) to stressors with the help of special training.
Social welfare (health component) is also usually considered (by analogy with the physical and mental health) in the aspect of adaptation (adaptation to the conditions of social life). In this case, the above-formulated principles of valeology reflected in the relevant social mechanisms. Thus the principle of “preservation of health” is manifested in mechanisms of social protection of citizens, guaranteeing them relative prosperity and stability of life (medical care, social security, etc.) (A. I. Yashin, 1991). And the principle of “increasing health reserves”, apparently, to associate with the rights of citizens to free expression of their biological and social opportunities and their implementation in reality (A. J. Ivanushkin, 1982; M. S. Grombakh, 1988).
The effectiveness of mechanisms for the preservation and improvement of health reserves depends on many factors. But the decisive role among them, according to I. I. Brahmana (1990), N. M. Amos (1979), V. Levi (1982) and other authorities in the field of valeology, morality plays (culture) of the person, the main characteristic of which (in the context of the stated problem) is his attitude towards their health and the health of others.
Valeological attitude towards yourself and others is the result of specific pedagogical interventions. In this regard, in the structure of valeological the viability of particular importance pedagogical component, the essence of which, according to I. I. Brahmana (1995), consists in “teaching health from a very early age”. Pedagogy of health is a relatively new development in valeology. Its main subject is the health of the younger generation. And here it is important to note that the health of children, adolescents, young men and women in the process of their development, maturation and growing up is not only capable of persist or grow, but in a certain way is being built and rebuilt. Therefore, as part of valeology of childhood, boyhood and youth becomes most urgent task of forming health. Here, accordingly, follows another principle of valeology – the principle of formation of health. Of course, this principle should not be considered only in the aspect of learning to manage their own health (or rather – valeological education). In our view, it is of General importance. In other words, its enforcement must ensure the formation of the main components of the health of children, adolescents, young men and girls throughout their educational activities.
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