Observations show that the performance of physical work immediately after meals is not only not increased, and, conversely, inhibits digestive processes. The observed decrease (inhibition) in the secretion of digestive glands, disturbed reflex secretion of digestive juices.

Inhibition of digestive functions during physical work can be explained by the inhibition of food centres in the negative result of the induction motor

excitation centers. This is due to the fact that the blood supply to the digestive glands decreases, and leads to a decrease in the secretion.

When the sports activity, you must consider that not only the muscular work slows down digestive processes, but also intensive digestion of food has a negative effect on motor activity. Excitation of food centres and the outflow of blood from muscles to the organs of the abdominal cavity reduces the efficiency of physical work. In addition, a full stomach contributes to the high standing of the diaphragm, which adversely affects the activity of the cardio-respiratory system. In this connection between food and physical education and sports it is advisable to take a break for at least two hours.

However, the athlete is often necessary to train (or compete in) shortly after eating. In this case, the food should consist largely of carbs, quickly digested and absorbed, otherwise it will “lie” in the stomach without the action. Also, the medication (tablets) should not be applied just before the start.

Digestion during physical work

Physical activity affects the function of the gastrointestinal tract. On the one hand, the activation of metabolic processes and the development of the abdominal muscles, muscles of the intestine, enhance motor function of the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, intense physical exercise (work) inhibit the function of digestion.

One of the important factors in the digestion of food is blood. It is known that during physical work is a redistribution of blood (see tab. 15.2). If alone through the digestive system and the liver blood flow is 25-30% of the total cardiac output during strenuous physical activity – only 3.5%. Although in these conditions the cardiac output increases more than 5 times, but overall the flow of blood to the digestive system decreases from 1.2 to 1.5 l/min at rest to 0.9 l/min during operation.

The energy exchange (EE)

After the meal, the intensity of metabolism. In the case of a mixed diet in the rate of exchange increases by about 6%. When protein intake is the intensity of the exchange increases to a much greater extent than consumption of fat or carbs. This may be due, in particular, the fact that in the process of metabolism to generate 1 mol of ATP proteins requires more than fats and carbohydrates (in terms of calorific value) (N. And. Chees, 1964).

EA is inherent in all warm-blooded; energy-rich nutrients absorbed and chemically converted, and the end products of metabolism with lower energy content is removed from the cell. Fill energy is used for different purposes.

Exchange, or metabolic, processes in which specific elements of the body are absorbed from food, called anabolism, the metabolic processes in which structural elements of the body or absorbed foods disintegrate, called catabolism. The metabolism of fats and carbohydrates mainly serves to ensure physiological functions (functional metabolism), whereas protein metabolism is needed primarily to maintain and modify the structure of the organism (structural metabolism).

The unit of measurement of energy metabolism. Energy metabolism expressed in kilocalories (kcal) per unit time. However, in the International system of units as the basic unit of energy adopted the Joule (j): 1 Joule = 1 watt • 1 = 2,39 • 10 4 kcal; 1 kcal = 4187 j = 4,187 kJ ” 0,0042 MJ. It follows that 1 kJ/h

0.28 W (=0,239 kcal/h) and 1 kJ /day “0,012 W (“0,239 kcal/day).

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