Types of physical activity, the intensity
Types of physical activity, the intensity
Systematic physical activities lead to the adaptation of the human body to perform physical work. In the adaptation are changes in the muscle tissues and various organs as a result of training. All these changes determine the training effects. They are manifested in the improvement of various functions of the body and improving physical fitness.
In the analysis of the determinants of physical training effects of exercise, we can highlight the following aspects:
and functional effects of your workout;
– threshold, critical load for the occurrence of practice effects;
– the reversibility of training effects;
– specificity of training effects;
– treniruemoj, which determines the magnitude of training effect.
The last two aspects are the most important in sports training.
Systematic perform certain types of exercise causes the following main positive functional effects:
– gain maximum functionality of the whole organism, leading his systems;
– increase the economy, efficiency of the whole organism, leading his systems.
The first effect is determined by the maximum growth rate when performing limit tests. They reflect the current maximum capacity of the organism, essential for this type of exercise. For example, the effect of endurance training says raising the maximum capacity in the oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen consumption and duration of muscular work on endurance.
The second effect is a decrease in functional shifts in the activities of other organs and systems of the body while performing a specific job. So, when you perform the same exercise in trained and untrained persons have lower performance for last. For a trained person will be lower functional changes in the heart rate, respiration or energy consumption.
Underlying these positive effects are:
– structural and functional changes leading vital organs when performing a specific job;
– improvement of the Central nervous, endocrine and Autonomous regulation of cell functions in the process of exercise.
One of the main issues in the physical preparation is the selection of appropriate optimal loads. They may be determined by the following factors:
– rehabilitation after various diseases, including chronic;
rehabilitation and recreation activities to relieve psychological and physical stress after work;
– maintaining existing fitness at the current level;
– improving physical training;
– development of functional possibilities of organism.
As a rule, no serious problems with the selection of loads in the second and third cases. Difficult choice of loads in the first case, which is the main content of medical physical culture.
In the latter case, the functions of individual organs and the whole organism, i.e. achieving a training effect is achieved if systematic training load is quite large, in excess in the process of training some threshold load. Such coaching threshold load must exceed everyday.
The principle of threshold stress is called the principle of progressive overload.
The basic rule in choosing the threshold stress is that they should match the current functionality of this person. So, the same load can be effective for malotrenirovannogo person, but ineffective for the untrained.
Thus the principle of individuation relies heavily on the principle of threshold loads. From this it follows that in determining training loads as the trainer and the trainee must have sufficient insight into the functionality of the organism.
The principle of gradualism in increasing loads also has a physiological consequence of the principle of threshold loads that would gradually increase with the growth of fitness. Depending on your workout goals and personal abilities physical activity should have a different degree. Different threshold load are used to improve or maintain the existing level of functionality.
The main physical parameters of the load are its intensity, duration and frequency, which together determine the volume of the training load. Each of these parameters plays an independent role in determining training effectiveness, however, no less important, their interaction and mutual influence.
The most important factor affecting training effectiveness, the intensity of the load. When taking into account this parameter and the initial level of functional fitness of the influence of the duration and frequency of training within certain limits may not play a significant role. In addition, the value of each parameter of the load greatly depends on the choice of indicators on which to judge training effectiveness.
For example, if the increase in maximum oxygen consumption largely depends on the intensity of the training loads, the reduction in heart rate at submaximal test loads more depends on the frequency and total duration of training sessions.
The optimal threshold load also depend on the type of exercise (strength, speed strength, endurance, gaming, technical, etc.) and its type (continuous, cyclic, or re-interval). So, for example, increased muscle strength is achieved by training with heavy loads (weight, resistance) with a relatively small repetition each workout. An example of a progressive increasing load in this case is the method of repetition maximum, which is the maximum load that a person can repeat a certain number of times. Under the optimal number of repetitions from 3 to 9 with the growth of fitness weight increases so that the number remained at amlopidine voltage. Threshold load in this case can be considered the amount of weight (resistance) greater than 70% of arbitrary maximum power of the trained muscle groups. In contrast, endurance increased as a result of training with a large number of repetitions at relatively low loads. Endurance training to determine the threshold load is necessary to consider the intensity, frequency and duration of load, its total volume.
There are several physiological methods for determining the intensity of the exercise. The direct method involves measuring the rate of oxygen consumption (l/min) — absolute or relative (% of maximal oxygen consumption). All other methods are indirect, based on the existence of a link between the intensity of the load and some physiological indicators. One of the most convenient indicators serves as the heart rate. The basis of determining the intensity of the training load on the heart rate is the relationship between them: the greater the load, the greater the heart rate. To determine the intensity of the exercise, different people have used absolute and relative indicators of heart rate (relative percentage heart rate or relative in percent work growth).
Operating relative heart rate (% HR max) is expressed as the percentage of the ratio of the heart rate during exercise and maximum heart rate for this person. Approximately max. heart rate can be calculated by the formula:
Heart rate max 220 – age (years) beats/min.
It should be remembered quite significant differences of heart rate max for different people of the same age. In some cases, a beginner with a low level of physical training max. heart rate Should be calculated by the formula:
Heart rate max. 180 – age (years) beats/min.
When determining the intensity of training loads on the heart rate is used with two parameters: threshold and peak heart rate. Threshold heart rate is the lowest rate below which the training effect does not occur. Peak heart rate is the highest intensity, which should not be exceeded as a result of training. Estimates of the heart rate in healthy people involved in sport can be:
threshold — 75%,
peak — 95%
of your maximum heart rate. The lower the level of physical fitness of the individual, the lower should be the intensity of the training load. With the growth of fitness she needs to grow gradually, up to 80 – 85% of maximal oxygen consumption (up to 95% of heart rate).
Zone works on the heart rate beats/min.:
– to 120 — preparatory, warm-up, main exchange;
– 120 – 140 — recovery-supporting;
– 140 – 160 — endurance, aerobic;
– 160 – 180 — developing speed endurance;
– 180 — the development of speed.